"And the greetings flung in Irish, and the flood of Celtic banter,
And the hectic flush of racial pride upon St. Patrick's Day."
Both our Irish and Anglo-Irish ancestors have a history that dates back many centuries. Our story commences with what is known about the Clancy's at the close of the eighteenth century, and follows through their activities in Ireland till Thomas Clancy emigrated in 1841.
Ireland had long been under British rule, and became united with England in 1801. A large Anglo-Irish population, descendants of people who had settled in Ireland some centuries earlier, were the land-owning aristocracy. The Church of Ireland was also in a privileged position, and tenants were required to pay tithes to a parson of a faith they considered heretical. Rebellions against British rule occurred in 1798 and 1803. Many people perished, and many rebels were transported to Australia. Others were transported because they were convicted of crimes of violent protest against poverty and landlordism; yet others were transported because they were ordinary criminals, mostly thieves, often as a consequence of their poverty.
The period from the late eighteenth century until the big potato famine in the eighteen-forties1 was one in which there was literally a "population explosion". Montesquieu calls population "une immense manufacture". It certainly flourished in Ireland. From an estimated population of 4,753,000 in 1791, the figure rose to 8,175,124 in 1841. This increase was achieved despite the migration in the period 1780-1845 of 1,140,000 to the U.S.A. and Canada, 600,000 to England and Scotland, and a smaller number to Australia2.
The standard of living improved in the second half of the eighteenth century. Arthur Young visited Ireland in 1776, and in the most fertile districts he found "lower classes" - tenant farmers - had a sufficient supply of potatoes. They normally kept a cow, a pig, a flock of hens, which lived in the cabin with the family, and numerous lakes abounded with fish.
"But reverse the medal: They are ill-clothed and make a wretched appearance, and, what is worse, are much oppressed by many who make them pay too dear for keeping a cow, horse, etc., and the wretched cabins, sometimes made out of sods of clay, have to house the livestock as well as the family."
This oppression was due to the land tenure system. Landlords farmed out rents to middle-men, who put the screw on "rack-renting". Many tenants felt their only recourse was to force. Land-leagues sprang up in the 1760's "Whiteboys" (so named for their hoods) terrorised the country. 3 The housing position remained shocking. The census of 1841 graded "houses" in Ireland into four classes. The fourth and lowest class consisted of windowless mud cabins of a single room. "Nearly half of the families of the rural population" reported the Census Commissioners, "are living in the lowest scale". Pigs slept with their owners.
There were severe famines in Ireland in 1817, 1822, 1826, 1831,1835-37. Then came the Great Famine of 1845, so called because instead of attacking one and a half million, as in 1817, it killed some two million people directly and forced a million more into the hunger-hulks to emigrate. Over most of the first half of the century, there was extreme agrarian distress. William Carleton called Ireland "one vast lazar-house, filled with famine, disease and distress". The Poor Law Commission of 1836 reported that for about 30 weeks of every year some 585,000 (with 1,800,000 dependants) were "out of work and in distress". This led to the passing of the Irish Poor Law and the establishment of workhouses. About this time, Father Mathew commenced his campaign for temperance in and around Cork.4
H. Townsend in his Statical Survey of the County of Cork (1810) reported that:
"The Barony of Fermoy (in which the Clancy's lived) was formerly an open, grazing country; it is now enclosed, tilled, and almost full of inhabitants as the lands along the sea coast for the whole year, potatoes were the principal food of the poor; sometimes they had nothing to add to them, though the better sort had some condiment, salted fish, or boiled sea weed near the coast, and inland some form of liquid milk."5
Daniel O'Connell formed the Catholic Association in 1823, and his activities, culminating in some 2,000 protest meetings throughout the land, led to the passing of the Catholic Emancipation Act in 1829. The Education Act in 1831 set up a State supported system of education which forbad the teaching of Gaelic and replaced the teaching of Irish history with English history. Cork was the second city of Ireland with a population of about 100,000 in 1805, of whom 75% were Roman Catholics. Of the remaining quarter but few were actively associated with the Church of Ireland, and the Methodists, though small, were rapidly growing. The poor lived in overcrowded conditions, and the old gaol was shocking. Cork had a number of manufactures, and a considerable export trade.6
The two towns from which our ancestors came were Castletownroche and Cobh. In 1849 Castletownroche, which was on the side of a sloping hill on the western bank of the Awbeg River, had 173 houses with a population of 1063, and it was probably a little larger when the Clancy's knew it ten to thirty years earlier. It then had two flourmills. A sub-post office connected it with Fermoy in 1849, and there was a police force stationed in the barracks. Fairs were held on 25th May and 29th September each year. Two additional fairs had also been held on 28th July and 12th December, but these were declining in popularity.
The Church of Ireland is on the east side of the Awbeg and in the churchyard are the graves of William Clancy (1791) and his father Tim (1787), Pat Clancy and family. At the western end of the town is the Roman Catholic Church, built about eighty years ago, to replace a Church built in 1848 and which had been burned down. There was an old cruciform chapel at "The Close" (owned by another Thomas Clancy) just a short distance from the present Church. It was here that the Clancy's worshipped. The Rev. J. Fitzpatrick secured the ground of the present Church and erected the Church in 1848. The Rev. Michael Collins was parish priest in 1811, in which year the parish Registers were begun. The Rev. John Kirby took over in 1814 and died in 1832. He was succeeded by the Rev. J. Fitzpatrick. The Roman Catholic parish at that time was the head of a district comprising the parishes of Killothy, Ballyhooley, Kilcummer and Bridgetown.
The Awbeg was the favourite stream of the poet Edmund Spencer, which he calls "Mulla fair and bright". Downstream from the bridge, which crosses it at Castletownroche, are the ruins of the old mill which had been owned by Paddy Staunton. Burnt in 1837, it was later rebuilt and used for many more years. Close to Rinny the Awbeg falls into the Blackwater River, and in the fertile valley in the confluence is the ruins of the venerable Bridgetown Abbey founded in the reign of King John by Alexander Fitzburgh Roche.
Just south of Castletownroche is the Castle, Widenham, built by Johnny Roche. After the Roche's the Widenham's possessed it. It was in ruins in 1839, but later repaired. Later still Henry Mitchel Smith owned it. The district has good farmlands of well-drained limestone soils, and in 1841 it had a density of 290 to 300 per square mile. Among the farms were many fine orchards.7
The name Clancy is a "Mac"; the initial "C" is in fact the last letter of the prefix "Mac". In Irish it is MacFlannchaid (son of Flannchaid, "flann" meaning "reddish"). There are two septs of the name. The more important is that of Thomond. They are a branch of the 0'Briens. They became established in the northern part of Clare, the place name "Cahermacclancy" locating the area.
Up to the time of the final collapse of the Gaelic order, the MacClancy's were very influential in county Clare. Boetius Clancy (Boetius was a common Christian name in that family) represented Clare in the Parliament of 1555. He was one of the "nobility of the diocese of Killaloe" who sent a memorial to Cardinal Veralto, the Protector of Ireland.
The coat of arms of this ancient Irish family was "argent two lions guardant in pale gules" and the crest "a dexter hand couped at the wrist erect holding a sword in pale pierced through a boar's head couped all proper". 8
By the late eighteenth century, there were a number of Clancy families in county Cork, particularly in the upper reaches of the Blackwater River. The forebear of our family, Patrick Clancy, was established as a landowner in the Upper Bridgetown area late in the eighteenth century. (This was somewhat unusual, for very few Roman Catholics were then numbered among the landed gentry.) The following extract is from Col. Grove White's book Historical and Topographical Notes (published early in the twentieth century):
"Copsewood or Copse"
Barony of Fermoy, Parish of Bridgetown. Townland of Bridgetown Upper. It is situated about a mile south of Castletownroche, which is the post-town. It was the property of the Smythes of Widenham.
Mr James Byrne J.P. of Wallstown Castle writes:-"A pretty villa, named Copse, stands not far from the Abbey of Bridgetown. It was erected by Mr P. Clancey (the name was spelt indifferently with or without "e" in early records) about the end of the eighteenth century. It has often changed tenants".
From what I can find out the following appear to have lived there:-
Mr P. Clancey, who built the house.
In 1814 Mr John Clancy.
1840 Rev. Charles Maginn.
Col. White then lists ownersdown to 1907.9
Nothing further is known about Patrick Clancy. John Clancy, his son, is listed in Lett's Directory (1814) among the landed gentry as owner of "Cops, post-town Castletownroche".
John Clancy married Nanno Geraldine, whose surname is unknown to me. From the Registers it would appear that he had three sons - Patrick, Thomas and John. If the Irish custom of naming the eldest son after the grandfather was followed, Patrick would have been the eldest. Thomas was born in 1808 and John in 1809. Because the Parish Registers only began in 1811, further details are unavailable.
A Patrick Clancy of The Copse (presumably the one already referred to) married Bridget McAuliffe and the children were John, Patrick, Maurice and Ellen. In 1825, a Patrick B. Clancy owned land in the sub-denomination of Kilquain in the Parish of Bridgetown.
John Clancy married Mary Theresa Fitzgerald, and they had only one child, Elizabeth Honora.10
John Clancy, Snr, died sometime between 1814 and 1825. In the latter year when the aplotment of Tithes from the Parish of Bridgetown payable to the Honourable the Rev. James St. Leger, were determined the Commissioners, Thomas Hoare and Robert Webb, Mrs Clancy is named as one of the occupiers in the sub-denomination of Copse. She had 50 acres with a total value of £100. The tithe she was required to pay was£8:11:7½. The soil was stated to be "arable" with "good meadows and pasture". In the neighbouring sub-denomination of Kilquain, Patrick B. Clancy had 11 acres. Mrs Clancy also had 44 acres 21 roods in the ploughland of Bridgetown, with a valuation of £107:4:9.11
The Parish Registers have entries of the baptisms of Catherine (1836) and Margaret (1840), daughters of John Clancy and Ellen (nee Mullane) of Copse. If this John is a brother of Thomas and Patrick, then his wife and daughters must have died some time later, and he married Mary Theresa Fitzgerald, by whom he had the child Elizabeth. In the 1851 Primary Valuation of Tenements for the Parish of Bridgetown, John Clancy is shown as having two properties of 51 acres and 66 acres, with annual values for land and buildings of £52:15:0 and £72:5:0.12
The property of John Clancy was near the ruins of Bridgetown Abbey and he was listed among the landed gentry in Directories of 1844, l867 and 1875. Further reference will be made to him later in the story.13
Thomas Clancy was born in 1808, and was privileged to grow up without being subject to the same kind of penury that many people experienced, and was able to receive a reasonable education. Doubtless he and other members of the family enjoyed the freedom of life on the spacious acres of their parents' property, and often wandered as far afield as the ruins of Bridgetown Abbey
But life for many others was not so pleasant. During Thomas' youth Andrew Sullivan, Patrick Hennessy, Patrick Hennessy Jnr, John Finn and David Magner were executed at Gallows Green for setting fire to the mills and dwelling house of Charles Hennessy near Castletownroche on 24th April 1823.14
A few years later the tithe resistance movement was in full spate in County Cork, as well as in Kilkenny, Tipperary and Waterford. Tithes were taken on two things touching the peasant's life closely, bog-turf and potatoes. The clerical income derived from potatoes was enormous. Farmers armed with pitchforks and pikes engaged in hand to hand fighting with the military and police, who had rifles, bayonets and artillery. The last of these encounters took place at Rathmacormac, a hamlet between Cork and Castletownroche, in December 1834 when soldiers with a Protestant clergyman (who was also a justice of the police) proceeded to collect a tithe of forty shillings from a widow. In 1838 the resistance proved successful and Parliament passed the Tithe Commutation Act.15
Thomas Clancy (aged 22 years) married Anne Kirby (also 22 years of age), eldest daughter of Thomas Kirby and Eleanor (nee Barry) on Tuesday, 2nd February 1830. They were married in St. Colman's Church, Cove (now spelt Cobh) by the Rev. Mr Scannell. Witnesses were Simon King and John Kirby.16
It is through Eleanor Barry that the Clancy link with the Fitzgeralds is established and in an endeavour to maintain a consciousness of that link, many of their descendants have been named Gerald and Geraldine. Just as on the Clancy side we are descended from an honoured ancient Irish family, so on the Barry side we are descended from two well-known Anglo-Irish families.
The Fitzgeralds arrived with the Norman invasion in 1170 and have played a major role in every crisis in Ireland. They have consciously integrated by culture and marriage with the Irish. Philip de Barri, grandson of Nesta of Wales, settled in Ireland in 1183 and established the Barry dynasty. Barrys were owners of Great Island, between Cork and Cove.17
The Kirbys came from Limerick, and a Thomas Kirby in Cobh told me there have been Kirbys on Great Island for about 400 years. Thomas Kirby, father of Anne, had a property in the Townland of Ballyvaloon (which borders on Cove) in the Parish of Clonmel. In the 1825 Tithe Composition Aplotment Book, he is shown as having 10 acres 3 roods 8 perches, with a total value of £21:2:0, on which the tithe assessed was £1:4:9 per year. His name does not appear in the 1852 Valuation of Tenements. At that time the lessor of most of the land in Ballyvaloon was James H.S. Barry. Thomas was an Architect and apparently in a reasonable financial position, for he is reputed to have given his daughter Anne £1,000 as a wedding present.18
A sister of Anne, named Sarah, married Colonel Prenderville, who was Governor of St. Helen's when Napoleon was prisoner there. They had two children, William (who remained a bachelor) and Leonice (who died without issue).19
Cove (population 5,142 in 1841) had grown since 1786 into a fashionable health resort. The British Navy used Cove and the harbour as a base. Richard Hayward describes Cove (Cobh) thus:
"Cobh. The spendid situation of this little town of almost 6,000 people is most impressive. The main thoroughfare runs along the beach, and to the left the town rises picturesquely up the slope of a hill that is dominated by the beautifully designed and perfectly sited late nineteenth century Roman Catholic Cathedral of St. Colman. The view from this superb site is wide arid rewarding and much of the intricate formation of the river eroded countryside can be seen to great advantage. Beneath us to the right is Haulbowline Island with its steelworks and headquarters of the Irish Naval Service, and beyond to the left is Spike Island where many Irish political prisoners were incarcerated before they were sent in foul convict ships on their long and dreadful journey to Botany Bay."20
The Cathedral to which he refers has replaced the Church in which Thomas and Anne were married. It was commenced in 1868 and completed in 1919 at a cost of £235,000. On shields and scrolls on the interior walls are the names of all bishops and priests of the Church beginning with St. Colman 560-604, indicating that Christianity was introduced into the area at an early date. 21 In Cobh is a memorial to the victims (and rescuers) of the Lusitania whose bodies are buried in mass graves at Clonmel, just north of Cobh.
Thomas and Anne lived at or near Cove for a time after their marriage and there their eldest son, John Joseph, was born in 1831. However, his name is not entered in the Cove Register of Baptisms, nor yet in the Castletownroche Register. Their second child, Eleanor, was born on 25th March 1832 and was baptised at Castletownroche, the sponsors being John Clancy (probably her uncle) and Mary Bowers. The Register does not indicate where the parents were living.
Thomas and Anne were sponsors for the baptism of Patrick Clancy, son of Patrick Clancy, in June 1833, indicating that they were probably living at Copse or nearby. There is no record of the baptism of their third child, Thomas Gerald, in this Register. He was born on 21st December 1835 at "Acres", a townland of Castletownroche.
The fourth child was baptised Catherine Angela at Castletownroche on 25th April 1837, the sponsors being John Clancy and Honora Clancy, the parents address being given as Castletownroche.
The fifth child, Mary Nanno (Nanno being another form of Honora) was born in 1838. There is no record of the baptism of Mary in the Castletownroche Register, nor of the sixth child, Agnes Anne, born early in 1841. 22 However, Thomas must still have been living at or near Copse, for even in Australia he continued to regard himself as a "Gentleman farmer", and when Anne died in 1864 the death notice referred to her as being of "Copse", Ireland. Even John, ten years of age when they left Ireland, retained memories of riding around the Clancy estate.
The children were able to receive an education while they were in Ireland and generally fared much better than many other children. In the Parish of Castletownroche, there were four Parish schools in 1839, in which about 220 children were being educated.23
January 1839 was long remembered as "the night of the big wind", for there was a most disastrous storm that night, which lasted for hours. Buildings were laid low; very many roofs were torn from houses; many lives were lost on land and sea. This was considered sufficiently significant to be entered into the Castletownroche Register of Baptisms (1835-1866), which did not usually contain such news items.24
Probably the sale of Copse in 1840 (this may have been when Mrs John Clancy died) led to a general movement of the sons. We have noted that John bought a property at Bridgetown; it is thought that Patrick emigrated to America; and Thomas emigrated to Australia in 1841.25
The introduction of the Bounty System enabled many people from Ireland, as well as from England and Scotland, to migrate to Australia. During the 1830's and 1840's almost half of all assisted migrants were of Irish origin. The emigration figures for 1841 show that of the people who arrived in Australia there were 4,563 English, 1,616 Scottish, and 13,400 Irish.26
There had been some improper actions indulged in by bounty agents, but Governor Gipps took steps early in 1841 to tighten up the regulations.
"Mr T.F. Eliot had been appointed Agent-General for Emigration in 1837, and he had agents of the Government at various outports, Including lieutenants Low at Liverpool, Heemans at Greenock, and French at Cork. The duties of the agents were similar to Eliot's, though naturally on a smaller scale. They supervised the shipping arrangements, and saw that proper provision was made for the safety, comfort and health of the passengers during the voyage. They provided information to private individuals, institutions and Parishes about the facilities existing for assisted emigration to various colonies. They prevented frauds being practised on the poorer class of emigrants who had been unscrupulously exploited by many of the shipowners. And finally, they provided the emigrants themselves with any information they might desire to have.
The agents were distinct from the surgeons or agents sent over from New South Wales to supervise the selection of emigrants for particular ships. The former were inspectors appointed by the Government. They had no power over selection of migrants. Dr Hall was appointed permanent agent for the selection of emigrants in Ireland."27
Certain shipping agents undertook to fill vessels with migrants, and it was the actions of the unscrupulous ones that the Government by the 1840 regulations sought to control. One of those agents was J.B. Were, who had arrived in Melbourne from Plymouth in 1839. On 7th February 1840 he wrote to Lieutenant-Governor C.J. La Trobe:
"I beg most respectfully to submit that labour in this country being quite inadequate to the large demand, I am desirous of introducing into this Port (under regulations of 15th September 1837 and 29th April 1838 for the interests of emigrants) one thousand families, with a proper proportion of single males and females. Your Honour's compliance with my request and the earliest intimation of the same is respectfully solicited."
Approval was given on 3rd March 1840. Between July 1841 and February 1842, ten ships arrived in Port Phillip with nearly two thousand emigrants "brought to the Colony by J.B. Were". A large proportion were from Ireland having embarked at Cork.28
Information concerning ships sailing to Australia were published from time to time in the Cork Advertiser, as well as other papers. Doubtless the question of emigrating had been discussed by Thomas and Anne Clancy with their relatives for some time, and they would have seen the advertisement on page 16, applied for and been granted selection as Bounty Emigrants, and made their arrangements to sail.
The Diamond was built at the Isle of Man in 1835 and was the fourth of the ships chartered by J.B. Were. On her previous trip to Sydney in 1838 she carried 162 female convicts, one, Mary Carmody being only thirteen years of age. Thomas Clancy, his wife and four children -John, Eleanor, Thomas and Agnes, embarked on this ship, leaving Catherine (5 years) and Mary Nanno (3 years) with their grandmothers. A hint as to why they were left may be obtained from the work of Caroline Chisholm. In the late 1840's she discovered that hundreds of Irish children had been left behind by their parents who had emigrated. It was stated that bounty was only paid for four children. This may have explained why these two girls were left.29
The Diamond Captain, W. Taylor, had Dr Irons on board as surgeon. It had fourteen first class passengers, six intermediate passengers and 330 bounty emigrants. The latter consisted of 41 families, 54 unmarried males and 67 unmarried females. Some of the surnames were Brennan, Bowles, Boyle, Curtis, Cummins, Coffinger, Cleary, Doolan, Forrest, Flyn, Holland, Hartney, Heron, Hislop, Healey, Hifferon, Jordan, Keenan, Kennedy, Lyons, Mullin, May, McDonel, Oximy, Ryan, Priestly, Simpson, Shanahan, Spearin. There were fifty children. Protestants numbered 44 and Roman Catholics 209. About half the adults could read and write. They represented a variety of occupations - carpenters, labourers, farm-servants, shepherds, stockmen, smiths, one gardener, one mason, one wheelwright. Most passengers were from Ireland, with just a few from England. The ship carried a super cargo of 480 deals and 270 boxes of soap. Thomas, Anne and the three older children could both read and write. Thomas was listed as a carpenter. Perhaps this gave him a better opportunity of coming as a bounty migrant than if he had described himself as a ".Gentleman farmer"..30
July 1841 was election time, and at Mallow, near Castletownroche, there were lively meetings, with Fathers Collins and McCarthy taking active parts. On 17th July, when the Clancy's would be about ready to journey to Cove for embarkation, torrential rain fell in the area. They would already have been on board when the Regatta was held on the harbour on 22nd July. The day was fine and Cove was a place of great gaeity. 31 With a steady wind blowing from the north-west, the Diamondsailed out of Cork Harbour on 24th July.
The journey was uneventful and the Diamond arrived in Melbourne on 4th November, a journey of 104 days. From contemporary accounts one can gain a fair impression of the journey, with a mixture of fair weather and foul. They did not sail in the season of wintry gales, but may have been becalmed for a time. Rain would replenish the supplies of fresh water. There was the usual ".crossing of the line". ceremony. Passengers would relieve the tedium of the journey by watching dolphins, flying fish, the albatross and other forms of marine and avian life quite new to them. Occasionally a passing ship would be sighted, and perhaps the Diamond "spoke" to one or more of them. The course was down the Atlantic towards the South American coast, then south-east towards the Cape of Good Hope, then across the Indian Ocean and well south of Western Australia till they first sighted Australian land at Cape Otway.32
Young Tom Clancy, in his later years, told his family that it was a fairly monotonous trip, because there were few incidents. He mentioned that ceremonies were held to mark the Crossing of the Line, when King Neptune and his retinue appeared and some were shaved. One stormy night a rather simple man got on to an unsecured box which moved and caused the man to suffer bruised legs. During the storm some water trickled through a crack on to Tom's face, waking him. Thereupon, he went up on to the deck and was tossed about a bit before he returned to his berth, none of his seniors being any the wiser concerning his nocturnal walk which could have had disastrous results. Such are the memories of a young boy, no doubt coloured by the passage of time.33
The migrants were reminded that reaching their destination in good health depended on observing the rules for cleanliness and airiness and Dr Irons saw to it that the rules were observed. Migrants were up by 7.00 am. By 8.00 am, when breakfast was served, children had to be washed and dressed, the decks swept, the beds rolled up and, weather permitting, carried on deck, and the berths well brushed out. No smoking was allowed between decks and spirits were not allowed to be brought on board. Dinner was at 1.00 pm and tea at 6.00 pm. Married men, in rotation, kept watch in quarters to prevent irregularities. Monday and Friday were washing days. Every Sunday, Dr Irons mustered the migrants at 10.30 am to see whether they were personally clean and had on clean clothes, after which divine service was conducted. Dr Irons also selected men to act as teachers to the children and, quite probably, Thomas Clancy (who later taught in Melbourne) was one of those selected. Migrants were encouraged to read the Bible and to be careful in their behaviour. The ship carried a supply of religious and moral books. On the journey, the parson (if there was one), the schoolmaster, the surgeon or the captain, pleaded with migrants each Sunday to observe frugality, industry, sobriety, purity, self-help and humility.
In addition to looking after children, preparing meals, mending clothes, women were encouraged to engage in other tasks, such as making clothes. Sometimes squabbles arose, inevitable when people are confined to a little space for months. And there was gossip about the places from which they came and to which they were going, people sharing what information they had.
There was one particularly savoury piece of gossip. On board there was a youth who represented himself as "the boy Jones" and if any of the passengers did not know who "the boy Jones" was before they embarked, they certainly learned about him on the journey. Three times "the boy Jones" had made an illegal entry into Buckingham Palace and twice he had been caught and had served a term of imprisonment in Tothill Fields Prison. His second term of imprisonment was for three months and he was released on 14th June 1841. During his time there his conduct had been exemplary. It is not known how many passengers believed that the youth who did the talking was really "the boy Jones" but some did. And so did the Press in Melbourne. A few days after the Diamond arrived, the Port Phillip Patriot wrote:
"The boy Jones, whose repeated intrusions into Buckingham Palace is well known, arrived as an immigrant on the Diamond."
Nearly three weeks passed after publication of that information before the same paper published a mass of information from England up to 18th August, brought out by the Wallace. One item from an English newspaper stated:
"The boy Jones is not it seems on board the Diamond after all. He was taken to Cork to be put on board, but Captain Taylor refused to have anything to do with him. The Government had contrived to have him smuggled out of the country but whether he has gone, even his father is ignorant. There is a boy on board the Diamond who represents himself to be the boy in question."
Doubtless this item would be read and discussed with interest by those who came on the Diamond. And material for further interested conversation was provided a few days later when the same paper published a long report from The Times. commencing:
"The case of the boy Jones appears to us to be one of the most important that has ever occurred touching the rights of a British subject."
The account tells how a Mr James went to the boy's father about ten or twelve days after the boy's release from prison and asked for permission for the boy to go to sea on the Diamond and promising good wages. Then follows an incredible account of Mr James and a police officer taking young Jones to Gravesend, back to London, to Cork, to Bristol, to Plymouth, back to Bristol, then to Liverpool, and finally after about a month Mr James returning to London and reporting to Mr Jones that the boy was on a ship (not named) and would be away about nine months, then adding that it was quite desirable that "nothing should be said on the subject If any enquires were made of the family". Of course, the paper asked who paid for all this travel and where did the boy get to? And that is the end of the story as far as the Melbourne Press was concerned but many a migrant must have asked from time to time, "What happened to the boy Jones?".34
During the voyage one male adult, one female adult and five children died and seven babies were born. Bounty was held from Mr and Mrs Kirby on account of ill-health and they died in Melbourne on 21st December 1841.
Gratuities were paid to Dr Irons for 254 persons at the rate of 10/6 making a total of £133:7:0. Captain Taylor received 3/- each for the same number, making his total £38:2:0; the first mate, Mr Thomas Elkin, received £19:l0:0; the second mate (William Davies) and the third mate (William McKenzie) each received £12:14:0.
Mr J. Patterson reported to the Lieutenant-Governor, Mr C.J. La Trobe:
"We wish to inform you that the immigrants in question came to this Colony in very good health and express themselves satisfied with the treatment they experienced during the trip."35
In 1841, there was a mud-bar over the Yarra River which blocked any vessel drawing over seven feet from proceeding up the river. Consequently, ships anchored in Hobson's Bay (which at that time was crowded with shipping), many of them opposite Williams Town, after Tobin, the pilot, dressed in frock coat and chimney pot hat, had come aboard and steered the ship to its anchorage. Then all kinds of persons came aboard chiefly for the purpose of hiring servants.36
Various formalities had to be undergone before anyone could disembark. Two days after the arrival of the Diamond, the agents, Were Brothers & Co., placed an advertisement (which did not appear till 11th November) to the effect that "the migrants of the ship Diamond having passed the Board of Examiners, are now open for selection.37
The Clancy's had arrived. Not any of them were to see their native land again. For a number of years they depended on slow mails to bring them news of the two children left behind. Now they had to adapt themselves to the climate of a new land, its strange flora and fauna, and life and work in pioneering situations.