6. North of the Border

"Our fathers came of roving stock,
That could not fixed abide:
And we have followed field and flock,
Since e'er we learned to ride;"

(A.B. "Banjo" Paterson,
"Old Australian Ways")

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With the exception of the three married persons - John, Eleanor and Mary - the Clancys moved over the border into New South Wales in the early sixties, and for the next two decades they lived in and around Deniliquin, John joining them there several years later. Whatever their reason, they were doing what large numbers of Victorians were doing at that time, thus bringing about a large increase of population in the western Riverina.

The overland stock trade, which began in the 1840's, was responsible for the development of the district, and particularly the Riverina towns. For this overland trade there were a number of routes, with crossing places over the rivers at Bairanald, Narrandera, Deniliquin and elsewhere; at each such place a town came into being. One route that became very familiar to the Clancys involved crossing the Darling at Wilcannia, the Lachlan at Booligal, the Murrumbidgee at Hay, the Edwards at Deniliquin, and the Murray at Moama on one side and Echuca on the other. To facilitate the crossing, punts were placed at these strategic centres.

Deniliquin became an important stock selling centre. From here large numbers of sheep and cattle were taken to feed the miners at Bendigo and other goldfields, and to meet the needs of the rapidly growing population of Melbourne. We have noticed that James Tyson exploited the market at Bendigo, and John Clancy was butcher there, both persons being part of the human chain that was necessary to take stock from the place where they were reared to the consumer. Another essential link in the chain was the drover, and before many years passed, some of the Clancys shared in that activity.

At Deniliquin, marked as a township in 1850, a school was erected in 1856, Church of England and Roman Catholic churches were opened in 1859, a bridge was placed over the Edwards River in 1861 to be replaced by a toll bridge in 1863, a new Post and Telegraph Office was opened in 1863, and the streets were lit with gas in 1865. A daily coach service ran between Moama and Deniliquin In 1859, and in 1866 there were two lines of coaches to Echuca, the fare being 7/6. Woods coach ran on to Sandhurst, Kyneton and Melbourne, the journey at first taking four days, but this was gradually reduced to 30 hours.

The largest stations south of Deniliquin were Warbreccan, Cornella, Stirs and Nathoura, the latter, 60,000 acres in area, being owned by Peter Stuckey. Until the 1850's, these stations were unfenced, and shepherds were engaged to care for the sheep. As fencing was introduced, the boundary rider displaced the shepherd.

After a dry summer, 1860 began with good rains in the Riverina, but this gave rise to a measure of apprehension. The Pastoral Times feared "a super abundance of beef and mutton", and foresaw a return to "boiling down". Prices did rise very high, and 1861 was even worse, and it was noted that the overland trade was "done" at present. Wool prices rose steadily from 1850 to 1860, and the weight and quality of fleeces increased. Wool was being brought down to the Melbourne market from further north, from the Lachlan and the Darling, some in heavily laden drays, some by river transport to Echuca. Throughout the 1860's the contemporary Press noted "the evident inclination to extend sheep runs", and the "desire to change status from cattle to sheep". Thomas Gerald Clancy, whose work had always been on the land, particularly with sheep, and who may already have been involved in taking stock to the Victorian markets, saw real opportunities to be gained by moving over the border.1 He told his family that he was in Melbourne in the crowd that farewelled Burke and Wills on 2Oth August 1860 as they set out on their tragic journey to the Gulf of Carpentaria. 2 It may well be that he had taken stock to Melbourne on that occasion.

He went to Deniliquin in 1861 or early 1862, taking his widowed mother and her younger children with him. There he met Catherine Caroline Nangan, daughter of Anthony Mangan, a farmer, who had been born in Geelong in 1846, and who was working as a servant in Deniliquin. They were married in St. Michael's Roman Catholic Church, Deniliquin, by the Rev. Bartholemew H. Powers on 18th Movember 1862, his brother and sister, Richard and Catherine, being witnesses.3

At the time of his marriage, Thomas was a dairyman. It may be appropriate to record an incident which happened not long before that time. Reserves for travelling stock were being carved out of large stations, which squatters accepted because it was in their own interests. But there were other reserves - those made in response to petitions - not so readily accepted.

"Why Mr Surveyor", said one gentleman In our hearing to Mr District Surveyor Adams, "the next thing Deniliquin will require will be some dairy farms on Warbreccan Run for supplying the town with milk, cheese, butter, etc.". "Be it so", said the Surveyor, "bring me a document such as this requisition and so signed and I will take steps to get these dairy farms marked out."4

Thomas Clancy worked on one of these dairy farms, and was still a dairyman when his first child, Mary Angela, was born on 25th July 1863, Mrs Stewart having come across from Glenorchy to be midwife. Thomas was a carrier when the second child, Anne, was born on 23rd November l864.5

Anne Clancy

Anne Clancy

In between the birth of those two children, Anne Clancy died in Deniliquin on 22nd April 1864, aged 56 years, the cause of death being dropsy. Brought up in reasonably comfortable circumstances, and having lived, after her marriage either in the fine home named "The Copse" or a cottage on the property (and reference was made to "The Copse" in her death notice which appeared in the local paper), 6 Anne had lived in pioneering situations in Australia - in early Melbourne, at "Allanvale", at Strathfieldsaye and Bendigo, and lastly, at Deniliquin. She had reared eight children, all living, had been parted from two daughters for several years, had seen four children married, and had welcomed the arrival of several grandchildren Whether or not she ever yearned to return to Ireland, she was a true pioneer and played a worthy part in helping her children become a part of the Australian community. Her body was laid to rest in Deniliquin Cemetery on the following Sunday afternoon. The Cemetery was unfenced and remained so until 1872 with stock wandering in it at will. A writer called attention to its state, adding, "this neglected spot does not speak well for us as a civilized community".

Despite a big flood in November 1864, the years 1863-1866 were years of severe drought in the district. The passing of the Robertson Land Act in 1861 brought an influx of selectors into the district. Political issues were very much alive in western Riverina, some wanting the area created as another State, some wanting it to be part of Victoria, and there was much contention over the border duties imposed at Echuca.7

The Clancys and their connections did not take any great interest in politics and public affairs. But there were two instances where, first Thomas Clancy, and later William D'Ornay, interested themselves in political candidates. It was customary in those days for a number of persons, usually prominent citizens, to place an advertisement in the local newspaper requesting a certain person to become a candidate for election to Parliament, and for that person to place an advertisement indicating his acceptance. In 1864 such an advertisement appeared in the Pastoral Times requesting Robert Landale to be a candidate, which request he acceded to. Included in the long list of names was that of "Thos. C. Clancy". Despite the opposition of the Pastoral Times to him, and its expressed hope that G.S. Lang would be their member, there was no other nomination, and Landale was elected unopposed. This was an isolated instance of interest in elections on the part of the Clancy brothers, although many years later in Queensland, Richard, writing to Thomas, expressed disappointment that in their recent elections Labour are slightly behind.

In 1877, William R. D'Ornay and John Condon were among those who asked William Officer of Zara to nominate. He declined on grounds of ill-health. J. Donaldson then nominated, but Mr Barbour was elected.8

Thomas Clancy moved from Deniliquin to become a boundary rider on Mathoura station before their third child, Francis Patrick, was born on 3rd January 1867. Peter Stuckey having died in 1860, Edward James Hogg was the new owner of Mathoura. The following year, their forth child, Gerald Thomas, was born on 2nd February. The parents address was given as Deniliquin, and the father was listed as Overseer when the baby was registered, although the Church Register of Baptisms gives his occupation as "hawker". The baptism was three weeks after Gerald was born.9

Kate Thomas G and Frank Clancy

"Kate", Thomas G and Frank Clancy

The fifth child, Ada Mabel, was born at Echuca on 18th September 1871, and six weeks later was baptised at St. Kilian's Church, Bendigo, on 29th October.

Thomas Clancy moved back across the border, and established their home in High Street, Echuca, in April 1870 and when the baby was born, his occupation was given as herdsman.10

On 29th January 1875, the two younger children, Gerald and Ada, went into the Murray River, and Gerald was drowned while bathing near Mackintosh's sawmills near Echuca, but Ada was saved by an older sister, either Mary or Anne, only to die a little over two years later. After the death of the second child, Thomas wrote a poem about the loss of both children, entitled "Our Children". Then followed the names of both children and dates of births and deaths. The poem commenced:

"Two children dear unto our hearts
our darling boy and girl
Went bathing in the Murray's stream
Unconscious of all peril."

The poem then recounts how, when the children were missed, they were sought and how an older girl rescued Ada, but that it was not till next morning that Gerald's body was recovered. It then proceeds to tell of the death of Ada, and adds "they laid her in her brother's grave", but the place of burial is not given. It was the Moama Cemetery.11

In 1875, Thomas was manager of a station. At some period during the seventies, he was a drover. In 1880, Catherine ("Kate") became established in High Street, Echuca, as a dressmaker and milliner.12 In the early 1880's she moved to Melbourne while Thomas continued as a drover, roving over New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Oueensland.

Two months after the death of Anne Clancy, the local paper listed subscribers to the Roman Catholic Church for repairs to the building. Among the names were Mrs Clancy (i.e., Catherine, wife of T.G. Clancy) £1, and Agnes Clancy 5/-. Shortly after this, Agnes went to work at Wanganella, on the Billabong between Deniliquin and Hay. There she met a bootmaker, John Condon, a native of Waterford, Ireland. At that time, Rev. Richard Joseph Duigan held occasional services at Mr Dillon's place, Wanganella, as well as preaching at Moama, Deniliquin and Hay, which was an immense parish to serve.13

John Condon and Agnes Clancy went to Hay to be married by Father Duigan on 21st December 1865, a hot trip across Old Man Plain. Her brother, Thomas, was one of the witnesses. 14 It is not known whether Richard, Catherine and Geraldine (all living in the district) were able to attend that ceremony. Agnes, whose heart was not strong, died on 28th March 1867, aged 26 years. There were no children of the marriage. Agnes was laid to rest beside her mother. 15 Later, John Condon married Mary McGrath in Bendigo, and they had a family. Richard Clancy, who had provided the necessary information in connection with the death of Agnes, kept in touch with John Condon for a time, and was sponsor at the baptism of two of his children.16

Prior to the death of Agnes, her sister, Catherine, married. William Roger D'Ornay, brother of John Clancy's first wife, was working on Mathoura station in the early 1860's. He and Catherine would have known each other when they were both living at Strathfieldsaye, if indeed they had not met as children in Queenstown, Ireland. William, aged 30 years, and Catherine, aged 29 years, were married at St. Kilian's Church, Bendigo, on 25th May 1866, the witnesses being Joseph and Mary Doran. Catherine gave her address as Sandhurst, usual address Deniliquin, which suggests she went back to her sister's place to prepare for the wedding. As John Clancy was then on a sheep station, he may have been present, and if the other Clancys journeyed from Deniliquin and Eleanor from Glenorchy (which was very likely), the wedding would, have been an occasion for a family reunion. William D'Ornay listed himself as "Gentleman".17

He was storekeeper at Mathoura when their first child, Walter Robert, was born on 26th July 1866, Eleanor Stewart being the midwife. He was still storekeeper there when the second child, Thomasina, was born on 17th November 1867. Once more Eleanor Stewart was midwife. So William was following in his father's footsteps in his work as storekeeper.18

William was Overseer when their third child, Arthur William, was born on 21st December 1869. It is interesting to note that Thomas Clancy was Overseer the previous year, and another brother-in-law, George Johnstone, was Superintendent of a station. Did one influence the other? Did George obtain the position of Overseer for him? This third child was not registered at Deniliquin. He may have been born in Bendigo, for he was baptised there two months after birth, cousin Frances Doran being a sponsor.19

The D'Ornays had three more children, making a family of six in all. Roger Thomas was born on 7th March 1872, and baptised in Bendigo on 5th July 1874, Margaret Stewart being a sponsor. (I have no information that Robert and Eleanor Stewart had a child named Margaret, therefore, I do not know who this Margaret is.) George Richard, born on 5th June 1874, was also baptised at Bendigo on the same day as Roger, this time Kate Clancy, wife of Thomas, was sponsor. These are some of the ways in which the various members of the Clancy family came together whenever possible. The sixth child, Leonard Gerald, born 19th June 1876, and baptised at St. Michael's Church, Deniliquin, on 9th July, his sister, Thomasina, being a sponsor. 20 In 1874, three members of the Clancy family were living in Victoria - the Stewarts at Glenorchy, the Dorans at Runnymede and the Thomas Clancys at Echuca.

From Mathoura, William D'Ornay and family moved to the other side of Deniliquin, possibly in the early 1870's, for he was at Four Post Creek in 1875 and at Conargo in 1876 when Leonard was born. Conargo is between Deniliquin and Jerilderie, and there he had the store and post office.21

William's health was not good, and on 22nd February 1878 he died of phthisis (which suggests that he might have worked in the Bendigo mines for a time). He was only 41 years of age, and Catherine was left with six young children to care for. On Saturday, 23rd February, the cortege left Conargo at 2.00 p.m., and crossed Deniliquin bridge at 4.00 p.m. on the way to the Cemetery, a long journey on a hot summer afternoon.22

Catherine battled bravely on, keeping store and post office going, and caring for her family. She was in charge of the post office at the time "Ned" Kelly held up the town of Jerilderie. The Kelly gang cut the telegraph wires so that no message could get out. It is not so well known that the Jerilderie Postmaster escaped under cover of darkness, and rode furiously to Conargo, where he arrived at midnight, and got fresh horses to ride on to Deniliquin to raise the alarm. Surely Catherine would have been aware of these doings, and the village of Conargo would be agog with talk about the Kelly derring-do in Jerilderie.23

In 1882, a report appeared in the Town and Country Journal as follows:

"Business in the town is healthy. The long established store (Mrs D'Ornay's) evidently commands the trade of that district."

Eleanor Stewart, who so frequently travelled from Glenorchy to be with one or another member of the Clancy family in a time of need, came to the assistance of Catherine after the death of her husband. She sent her eldest son, William, to assist Catherine. William married Alice Stroude in 1885, he being 31 years of age, and she 21.

In March 1882, the men's hut on Moonbria station was burnt, and with it all the belongings of the men who occupied it. Immediately he heard about it, William rode out with clothing for the men. At that time, there was a severe drought; stock were dying in every direction, and water was scarce, even for household use.24

Two children were born to William and Alice Stewart, while they were at Conargo - Ada Geraldine, born on 27th July 1886 at Deniliquin, and Eleanor Catherine, born on 10th April 1888 at Conargo, and her cousin George D'Ornay was a sponsor at her baptism. William left Conargo and returned to Glenorchy about 1890 where the next four children were born.25

Catherine D'Ornay died of "organic diseases of the liver, jaundice", on 29th August 1884. Her sister, Eleanor, was with her at the time of her death, and had been nursing her prior to it. Catherine was buried alongside her husband and mother and sister, the Rev. Timothy Walsh reading the last rites. John Clancy went down from Booligal for the funeral, and probably Richard also. 26 Doubtless Tom, Mary and Geraldine, none of whom were far away (Tom was in Sydney and could have travelled by train to Hay) would have made every effort to be present.

Not only William Stewart, but his brother Richard, was in the district for a time, for both witnessed the Last Will and Testament of Catherine D'Ornay on 28th January 1884. She appointed her brother, Richard, who was still storekeeper at Booligal, and her brother-in-law, George Johnstone, who was at the store in Wanganella, Executors. Her estate was sworn at £8,000 (including a Life Annuity Policy of £300), and was left equally to her children. 27 Probably William and Alice Stewart cared for them for the next six years while they remained in Conargo, during which time he had the store.

Information concerning the D'Ornay children in later life is far from complete. Thomasina married James Reade, and they lived at Maude, downstream from Hay. They had a family, and descendants are still in the Hay district. She kept in touch with members of different branches of the Clancy family, and was still living at Maude in 1938, a very light-weight 70 year old lady.

Arthur O'Ornay married Sabina Carter on 28th September 1890 in St. Virgilus Church, Hay, the celebrant being Father M.J. Treacey. They had eleven children - George William, Arthur, Catherine Mary, John Walter, Frederick James, Amy Irene, Leonard Gerald, William Roger, Edith Thomasina and Sydney Glossop. The family moved around quite a lot, being in Lithgow and Fairfield among other places. They were in Surrey Hills, Sydney, in 1899, and his auntie Geraldine ("Cherry") Johnstone stopped over there on her journey from Adelong to Queensland, following the death of May, Richard Clancy's wife. The last of the children was named after the captain and the ship Sydney because he was born at the time the Sydney sank the Enden. On board the Sydney was his brother, John. Both Arthur D'Ornay and his wife died in Sydney, she in 1937 and he in 1947. 28

Roger D'Ornay

Roger D'Ornay

Walter, Roger and Leonard D'Ornay worked around the Deniliquin district for many years - Walter was working on Tchelery station in 1907 and in 1915 was a groom at Maude; Roger was a clerk on Wanganella station, and Leonard was working on Puckeridgee station. In 1929, Roger was postmaster at Mossgiel and remained for the next three or four years in that position. It is not known whether these boys married. Walter was still alive in 1938, but not very well according to his sister. I have no information about George. Of Arthur's family, William Roger is living in Bendigo, and Sydney Glossop in Sydney.29

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The youngest of the children of Thomas and Anne Clancy, Geraldine, went to Deniliquin with her mother, and a few years later was working on Mathoura station, probably as a servant. At that time, George James Johnstone was Superintendent of the station. They were married at the Hill Plain Hotel (about eight miles south of Deniliquin, where a fault causes the plain to rise suddenly about 50 feet to a plateau), on 31st July 1869 by the Rev. J. Maitland Ware, Minister of St. James Church of England, Deniliquin. This was a real break in the Clancy family, for the first six members were married by Roman Catholic priests. But George insisted that Geraldine should be married according to the rites of the Church of England. He was born 37 years earlier at New Norfolk, Tasmania, the son of Thomas (a wine merchant) and Phoebe (maiden surname not known). Geraldine was 25 at the time of her marriage. Catherine D'Ornay was one witness. 30 Probably Thomas and Richard (at least, of the brothers and sisters) were present.

George Johnstone was Overseer at Mathoura station when their first child, Amy Geraldine, was born on 1st April 1870. She was baptised on 5th June by the Minister who married them. George was still on Mathoura when the second child, William George, was born on 3rd August 1872. But his occupation was given as drover when this child was baptised on 7th March 1873, and his absence on a droving trip may have been responsible for the delay. About this time, the Clancys begin to appear in various records as drovers. Whether they were droving together, or separately, we do not know.

Geraldine and George Johnstone

Geraldine and George Johnstone

The next five children were born at Wanganella. The first three were -Richard (born 4th March 1876), Catherine (11th October 1878), and Hubert Owen (17th April 1881). George was working on Beregamil station, near Wanganella when Richard was born. All three children were baptised on the same day, 25th September 1881, the officiating clergyman being the Rev. H.E. Taylor. At that time George was listed as storekeeper, residing at Wanganella. His brother-in-law, Richard had a store at Wanganella, but by about 1880 he had moved to Booligal to take over another store. It is probable that at that time he asked George Johnstone to look after the Wanganella store. The remaining two children were born while he was there. They were George James (born 30th November 1884) and Thomas Clancy Johnstone (born 1688) named after his grandfather.31

In 1889, George Johnstone left Wanganella and went to the Adelong district, where he acquired a grazing property known as "The Meadows" This was in the Gadara shire about three miles on the Tumut side of Adelong, the nearest railway siding being Gilmore. Here he grazed sheep, but he mainly bred blood stock horses.32

Geraldine (known to all as "Cherry") kept in close touch with various members of the Clancy family, but apart from her visit to Richard, after his wife died, it is not known to what extent she was able to visit any of them.

George was a strong man, and was active till he was a very old man. In 1904, Mary wrote: "Johnstone is still very hardy and Cherry seems to get very good health". He was then 72 years of age. Ten years later, Richard, writing from the Johnstone home (where he was visiting) said: "George is looking splendid and in the best of spirits, very little changed to what he was when I last saw him over thirty years ago. He says that he is going to live to be a hundred." But he had a very different report to make concerning his sister, then 70 years old. "My poor sister is only a shadow, about six stone weight. It cut me up greatly to see her looking so terribly thin." He remarked that the rest were well, except "Kitty" (Catherine) is "very slight also".33

Their son, Tom, enlisted, and writing from overseas in early 1919 said:

"My dear old father and mother are fast failing in health, and on 1st inst. I received a cable from home saying there was illness and asking me to come home soon. I presume the message referred to my father."34

Johnstone Family Group

Johnstone Family Group
Back Row: George J. Johnstone, Hubert, (Mille)
Front Row: Amy, Geraldine, Mary Catherine (Kitty), Campbell
Children: Gordon and Leopold Johnstone,
Colin Campbell, Geraldine Johnstone

It was not long after that that George died, but Geraldine continued to live at "The Meadows" until her death on 1st July 1927, at the age of 83 years. She was the last of that generation of Clancys to be born, and the last to die. She was buried in the Church of England portion of the Tumut Cemetery on 2nd July 1927, the officiating clergyman being Rev. C.F. Pyke.35

The eldest daughter, Amy Geraldine, also known as "Cherry", did not marry, and continued to live with her mother till her mother's death. Later she moved to Sydney where she died.

William G. Johnstone was a carrier in the Adelong district towards the close of the nineteenth century. Later he moved to Rappville, in the Casino district, and took up farming there. He married, and had six children - Amy, George, Allan, Ray, Joyce and Edna. Both he and his wife are dead.

Richard remained in the middle Adelong district, and was a grazier. He married Kathleen Burbury of Tasmania, and they had one child, stillborn.

Catherine ("Kitty") married Colin Campbell, who became an Inspector of Police. Both are deceased. Their children are Colin (deceased) and Keith, who lives at Gosford.

Hubert Owen Johnstone joined the Police Force on 13th September 1902, and rose to the rank of Police Sergeant. He served In Braidwood, Adaminaby, Nelligen, Bateman's Bay, Coramba, Taree, Bellingen and Kempsey, after which he retired to Sydney on 31st August 1940. He married Kathleen McKeon in Braidwood in 1906. Children of this union are - Gordon Owen (born 1906), Leopold Stewart (1906), Clifford Hubert Stewart (1915), Eileen N. (1918) who married William James, and Rita M. (1919). Hubert Johnstone died on 4th August 1948.

George J. Johnstone became a Police Magistrate and served on the Bench in the New England district. He married Susie Isabelle Milson ("Millie") and they had seven children - Gloria ("Muffy"), Geraldine ("Cherry") who married Malcolm Robertson, Richard Milson, Norman Milson, Ian Milson, Pamela Suzette, and Faith.36

Thomas met up with some of the Clancy family in Melbourne, enroute to the First World War, and met up with some cousins while overseas. In England he visited William Prendivifle, son of Colonel Prendiville and Sarah (nee Kirby). After the War, he had a clothing manufacturing business in Sydney. He married in 1942, and went to Townsville. He and his wife bad no children. Later he returned to Katoomba, where he died.37


John Clancy stayed in the Bendigo district until August 1866 at least, after which he moved into New South Wales, and became Overseer on Liscomb Pools station, near Carcoar. His brother-in-law, Ronald Rankin also moved with him and worked for a time on that property.

While there, John and Eliza had another son born on 26th September 1868. He was baptised Gerald by the Rev. Philip Ryan, parish priest at Carcoar, on 22nd November, sponsors being Ronald Rankin and Geraldine Clancy, who travelled across from Deniliquin. Ronald Rankin was still at Liscomb Pools, after which date I lose further trace of him.38

About 1870, John Clancy moved from Liscomb Pools and joined up with his brothers and sisters living in Deniliquin. There he commenced the life of a drover, an occupation he followed intermittently for a number of years, sometimes in company with his brother, Thomas. A second daughter was born to John and Eliza on 1st September 1871, and was baptised by the parish priest of Deniliquin, Rev. Joseph Dowling. She was named Lilias Mary, after aunt Lilias Cramsie who was one of the sponsors, the other one being William D'Ornay. John's stay in Deniliquin was not long, for he moved in 1873 to Goobang Creek between Parkes and Forbes.39

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Richard Patrick Clancy also went to the Deniliquin district with other members of the Clancy family. No information has come to hand concerning his employment in the Bendigo district or in Deniliquin in the first few years of his residence there. The first clear indication we have comes from a letter William Stewart wrote in 1922 to Richard's son, Tom, just after Richard died:

"I was a lot with him in my young days ...... and I think of the happy times we had while hawking in the back country. Some places that are pretty well settled now were very wild in those days. Fifty odd years makes a great change and sometimes we had some very hard times in drought times with bad weather and starved horses."

This gives us just a glimpse, and how we would like that picture filled in:40

The letter indicates that the period would be about 1870, or even earlier. In 1870, William was 17 years old. We have already noted that Richard's brother, Thomas, was listed as a hawker in 1868, and shortly afterwards as Overseer. It may be that Richard worked with him for a time, and then took over the hawking business from Thomas, taking his nephew, William Stewart, as an associate. We do not know how long they continued in this work, but the letter suggests that quite a period elapsed. In this business, both men gained experience in selling, and it is not surprising that both of them had stores in later years.

In 1869, Richard's address was given as Deniliquin, and in 1874 as Wanganella. At the latter place, C.H. Garrett had a store, and probably he took Richard into the store as an employee at that time. It was not long before he took Richard into partnership.41

A man named Dillon erected a punt on the Billabong at Wanganella in 1864, and John Taylor of the Royal Hotel, Deniliquin, completed a hotel, which he leased to Mr Hansen. In 1874, the village had a school, a store (run by Mr Monash, but taken over by Garrett soon afterwards) and two hotels. A Union Church was opened on July 18, 1876, and Garrett, Clancy were among those who collected when an appeal was made the following year for funds to wipe off the remaining debt, the amount collected at the store being £4:4:0. Mr J.P. Ledwich also gave 10/6, indicating a readiness on the part of Roman Catholics to help other Christians to establish their church.42

Richard remained in Wanganella till about 1879, and then he and Garrett opened a store at Booligal. The old store still stands at Wanganella, but the building has been condemned as unsafe because of unstable foundations, and a new building has been erected along side it.

John Ledwich and his wife, Frances (nee Doran) and her brother, Frederick, lived at Wanganella for a time. John went there in the middle 1870's, then went to Booligal, 43 possibly when Richard went, and returned to Wanganella in the middle 1880's and remained for about five years. While at Wanganella, four children were born to John and Frances, and were baptised by the priest from Deniliquin. The children were Frederick Joseph (born 1879), George William (1885), Leonard John (1887) and Francis Doran (1889). Sponsors for these children were William Ledwich and members of the Doran family. Both the Ledwich's and Frederick Doran later returned to Victoria.44

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One person who returned to live in the district was Anne, daughter of Thomas Gerald Clancy, and it would be appropriate to record her story at this point. She went with her parents when they returned to Victoria, and was living with her mother in the early 1880's in Melbourne when her father was in New South Wales and Queensland on long droving trips. There she met Frederick Brooks, and they married. When her mother died, Frederick Brooks became the licensee of the Union Club Hotel in Fitzroy. Some time later, they went to Jerilderie to live, and there he was in business for many years as a wheelwright. Fred and Annie Brooks had five children the first two died young; next came Charles Frederick, born early 1886, who died at the age of 2 years 11 months on 21st November 1888. The next two were girls -Elsie, who did not marry, and who died on 13th June 1906 at Jerilderie; and Evelyn, who married Daniel Sullivan, but they did not have children. She next married William Considine in 1928. Again there were no children.45

After many years in business in Jerilderie, Frederick and Anne Brooks moved to Melbourne. He died at Ascot Vale in 1930, and Anne lived with her daughter, Evelyn, in Northcote, where she died in 1942.46

One by one, most of the Clancys moved from the Deniliquin district -Thomas to Echuca then Melbourne; John to Parkes then to Booligal; Richard to Booligal, then after a trip to Ireland, finally settling in Queensland; Geraldine to Adelong. At the turn of the century, the Brooks were in Jerilderie, and some of the D'Ornays were in the district. Today, no descendants of this branch of the Clancys live in or around Deniliquin.

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